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Terminology

Terminology
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HTML

HTML5
HTML5 is version 5 of HTML, the 5th revised edition. In the past, HTML 4.01 and XHTML1 were in mainstream use, but since HTML5 was released on October 28, 2014, HTML5 has become the latest standard, designed to suit the next generation of Web environments.

In HTML5, the DOCTYPE header has been greatly simplified. HTML tags can also be used to separate contents into "article", "aside", "header/footer", etc. In addition, html tags such as "audio" and "video" make it possible to play multimedia files without using plug-ins. Therefore, in comparison to the previous version, it is now "easier to handle complicated processes, and the document structure of HTML is simpler."
CSS3
CSS3 is the third version of CSS, which is one of the languages that defines the appearance of formats and layouts, such as Web pages. W3C, which formulates standards for Web-related technologies, recommended a set of standards in June 2011.

The newly introduced specifications include features such as vertical text, columns, ruby, rounded corners, text and shape shadows, animation, transparent colors, gradients, time-varying transitions, two-dimensional and three-dimensional transformations, and more.

In addition, this CSS version introduced practical functions such as media queries that switch styles according to the client's displayed environment, advanced selectors including "first" and "Nth", and other properties for controlling voice and printing documents.
JavaScript
JavaScript is a simple programming language primarily used on the client side, developed for interactive expression on the Web. It is often confused with the programming language Java, but it is not the same. JavaScript is used to facilitate the interaction between a Web browser on the user's side and a Website / Web service.

By embedding JavaScript programs in HTML, a variety of features can be added to Web pages. For example, these programs make it possible to work with webpage contents through DOM (Document Object Model), to operate data by AJAX / IndexedDB, to draw graphics by canvas, and to exchange data with user devices that are running their browser through APIs etc.
jQuery
jQuery is a library of JavaScript that has been published as open source software. The greatest feature of jQuery is that it simplifies the coding of JavaScript. Programmers can manage CSS, XML, and the DOM (Document Object Model) through the jQuery API, and write a variety of programs with less coding volume.

In addition, programmers can use jQuery to absorb the differences in JavaScript interpretation between major Web browsers. The advantage is that it is easy to implement cross-browser programs that can reproduce the same display and behavior in any Web browser, and another advantage of jQuery is the small file size.
Responsive
Responsive is one coding technique for Web designs / Web sites. Also known as responsive web design, or responsive design. This technique flexibly adjusts the website display based on the width of different screens, such as PC, smartphone, touch device, and television screens, making it easy for users to see and obtain information.

The advantage of responsive design is that with one file, webpages can be displayed for all screens; PC, smartphone and tablet etc. Since the same file can be used to display the webpage on any device, this makes it easy to manage changes and to do maintenance. Responsive design can also reduce display errors for each device.
Parallax
Parallax effect creates a sense of depth, by making a difference in the speed and direction of movement. By creating a difference in the scrolling speed between the front and back, it is possible to express a sense of depth and three-dimensionality, allowing production of distinctive worlds with eye-catching design.

Web tech makes sets of layers, and then multiplies them. When each layer moves it create the parallax effect. Also, by adjusting the motion speed of the layer, the sense of depth will change.

By using parallax in a website, a story can be conveyed with impact, user's attention can be drawn fully, and even a pin-point can be made to stand out by applying effects to the portions you want emphasized.
SASS
SASS stands for Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets, which is a meta-language that can handle CSS with simple, verbose notation that is close to programming and can be managed with a simpler way of writing. The preprocessor of SASS uses Ruby, therefore installation of Ruby is required.

In cases where the size of the website is large and requires more detail and advanced style, the file size will inevitably become bigger and more difficult to maintain. By using SASS, the preprocessor converts what is written in a new grammar into an existing CSS, which brings benefits such as speeding up development, improving maintainability, reducing bugs etc.
EJS
EJS is a template engine tool. A feature of EJS is that HTML can be written while adopting a writing style like JavaScript. EJS makes it easier to write program-coding and convert it to HTML, because programmers can write JavaScript syntax in HTML templates, and embed program-coding in an HTML template file while evaluating the execution results of functions and variables.

Specifically, EJS can mass-produce HTML using the JavaScript iteration syntax, as well as divide parts such as headers and footers and standardize them. Therefore, the advantage EJS brings is efficiency, as programmers do not have to write similar coding many times, and when modifications of header and footer portions are needed only a single point of coding needs to be re-written.
Task Runner
Task Runner is a program that automates as a task the processes required to build a website. There are many template engines such as CSS preprocessors (SASS) and EJS, that function as libraries and tools for writing HTML and CSS more conveniently and multi-functionally. By automating these template engines as tasks and running them in the background, the whole team will be able to quickly build a web structure under the same environment.

When using Task Runner, the whole team can automatically execute tasks that are done when modifying files or creating delivery files, such as compiling SCSS (SASS), compressing images / CSS / JavaScript, and doing testing on the actual devices of PC / smartphone / tablet.
W3C
W3C stands for World Wide Web Consortium, an international organization that prepares rules and maintains Web frameworks. W3C is composed of more than 350 affiliated organizations, and has established an open space for discussing the Web for the joint development of web standards and the dissemination of Web projects. W3C standardizes the technologies used in the Web, such as HTML, CSS, and DOM specifications etc., and continues its activities with the goal of smoother development and quality improvement.

The Recommendation process means to discuss and examine the standardization of Web specifications in W3C. Certain steps, such as Working Draft, Last Call Working Draft, Candidate Recommendation, and Proposed Recommendation, etc., are each deliberated, which leads to the final stage of a specification decision, the W3C Recommendation.
Validation
Validation means to check the validity of the markup languages and the programming language in accordance with the specified grammar, or to verify if it is properly written in the requested specification.

In the production of websites, it means to check whether HTML and CSS are written with correct grammar. W3C provides HTML and CSS validation features on the web, called the W3C Markup Validator.

Validation, in programming languages, also means a mechanism to verify whether a character string entered by a user on a webform etc. is appropriately typed in a reasonable way for the validation rule. If a character string entered to the webform is not valid, it will return an error code.
WEB Standards
Web standards are any of the standard web-related technologies that are primarily recommended by international standards organizations such as W3C and ISO. These are technology specifications that can display and express the same way in any environment without depending on a browsing environment such as a Web browser.

The WWW-related standards recommended by the W3C are called "Web Standards". Since compatibility is regarded as important on the Internet and conforming to Web standards is a guarantee of compatibility, to ensure this compatibility, conforming to Web standards is recommended.

In addition, by conforming to Web standards, the document will have an easy-to-understand structure, which leads to improved accessibility and reduces the workload on both servers and users.
JIS X 8341-3:2016
JIS (Japan Industrial Standards) is a national standard based on the "Industrial Standardization Act" (Showa 24) aiming to promote industrial standardization in Japan. The official name of "JIS X 8341-3:2016" is called the "Guidelines for elderly persons and persons with disabilities--equipment, software and services in information and communications--Part 3: Web content."

The purpose of "JIS X 8341-3:2016" is to enable all users, including the elderly and disabled, to make use of Web content regardless of the terminal device, web browser, or assistive technology. There are three criteria for the quality of accessibility that Web content should meet: Level A, level AA, and level AAA.
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SYSTEM

PHP
PHP is an open source general-purpose scripting language, that is used to extend the functions of Web servers and dynamically generate Web pages. This scripting language is often used in web development because it can be embedded in HTML.

PHP is a procedural programming language employing the notation and grammar influenced by C language, Java, Perl, etc., and is often used by incorporating the execution environment into the Web server. One strength is that programmers can develop a program with concise writing. In addition, it supports object-oriented programming using classes, and it also provides a standard function to connect to an external database management system (DBMS). Therefore, another strength is that it's easy to develop web applications linked to databases.
MySQL
MySQL is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) developed and published by Oracle Corporation. It is one of the most widely used databases in the world, and anyone can freely acquire, use, modify, or redistribute it, etc.

For non-commercial use, users can acquire and use it free of charge. For commercial use, it can be used free of charge with a GPL license. MySQL runs on Linux, a major UNIX-based OS, and Windows.

Since MySQL supports multi-user and multi-threaded operation, MySQL is a suitable database for systems such as web applications which have many people accessing the database simultaneously. Advanced functions such as replication and transaction management are also featured.
Wordpress
Wordpress is a content management system (CMS), released as an open source blog creation system in 2003. CMS has the top market share in the world.

One of the advantages of WordPress is that it allow users without any Web expertise to create blog sites. It has many features such as simple, intuitive operability, high usability, extensibility, and design that conforms to web standards.

Also, users may download and use Wordpress for free, enable advanced customization, and have many plug-ins and themes. Therefore, many users choose to use WordPress. The development community is very active because engineers around the world can participate in development. Therefore, continuous upgrading to meet the needs of users can be realized.
MovableType
MovableType, provided by Six Apart and published in 2001, is a software for blog creation and management. It is also a CMS-evolved publishing platform, that besides blogging, allows users to manage individual webpages and files, and maintain update history etc.

MovableType is written by Perl and PHP. Each entry is stored in a relational database management system (RDBMS).

Used in wide range of applications, such as individual blogs, corporate websites and CMS, MovableType makes it possible to output HTML static pages, makes it easy to introduce the current site, and provides fee-based official support by manufacturers.
Apache
Apache is one of the most popular pieces of Web server software in the world. Apache, which was developed by Apache Software Foundation in 1995, is open source software. Due to its stability, abundance of functions, and compatibility with a great deal of software, it is supported by various users from individuals to companies.

It is characterized by its support of multiple platforms such as Linux, Unix, Windows, Mac and FreeBSD etc. It is also one of the popular combinations of open source software "LAMP (Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP)" used for Web development.
DNS
DNS is a system that stands for Domain Name System, and has been developed to manage and operate domain names on the Internet. In the TCP/IP network, each computer or network is identified by a numerical string called an IP address. DNS is a mechanism for converting this IP address into an easy-to-understand address for humans.

To access a website users need to find the Web server, and they need the IP address of the website to do that. DNS is used to look it up.

Some DNS manage domain names that operate only within an organizational network, such as a company, but in general, it refers to systems that manage domain names on the Internet.
GIT
GIT is an open source distributed version control system for recording and tracking changes, such as program source code. It has features to change program-coding simultaneously by multiple developers or to jointly manage multiple coding histories. Therefore, GIT is used to manage the editing history of the source code and documents, etc., when multiple developers collaborate to develop one piece of software.

Since “who made what changes” to each file is recorded, developers can refer to and revert to the state of a specific date and time. In addition, GIT creates a complete copy of the repository (aggregate management data) that includes a full history of the user's computer, and that can synchronize with the central management server if necessary.
HOSTS
HOSTS is a database of host names on computers using TCP/IP. It is a text file listing the correspondence between the IP address and the host name on the network. Since the HOSTS file is referenced before DNS, by including the IP addresses and domain names in pairs, it can be used when DNS is not responding or when a website is built on a new server.

In general, it is located in "/etc/" on Unix OS, and in "C:¥Windows¥System32¥drivers¥etc" on Windows. In a small local network, the IP address and host name conversion may be done in the Hosts file, but normally it is referred to a DNS server etc.
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BROWSER

Modern Browsers
Among the different types and versions of Web browsers, Modern browsers are a general term for a Web browser that is fully compliant with Web standards defined by international standards organizations such as W3C and ISO. On the other hand, browsers that do not comply with the "current Web standards" defined by W3C are called "legacy browsers."

Websites built using Web standard technology can use nearly the same user interface and functionality by browsing with a modern browser. In addition, a common feature of the modern browser is that it should support technologies such as HTML, CSS, XHTML, DOM, and JavaScript (ECMAScript) etc., which are the web-related technologies recommended by W3C.
Legacy Browsers
Legacy browsers are old web browser that do not support the "current Web standards" defined by international standards organizations such as W3C or ISO. On the other hand, browsers that support Web standards are called modern browsers.

In general, Web browsers released in the early 2000s are often referred to as legacy browsers. Internet Explorer 5 or earlier, Netscape Communicator 5 or earlier, Opera 6 or earlier are listed as legacy browsers. Many people view Internet Explorer 6 as a turning point from legacy browsers to modern browsers. Many legacy browsers can be categorized as modern browsers by subsequent version upgrades.
Chrome Developer Tools
Chrome Developer Tools are developer tools that are available in Google Chrome, a browser provided by Google. These tools, also known as Inspect Element, are very useful for Web developers.

Besides editing and debugging HTML and CSS, developers can easily check how the website is displayed on smartphones. In addition, developers can check the HTML element information and the style setting in CSS, check for errors and warnings in the webpage, and view the contents of the communication after a page request.

Chrome Developer Tools have many indispensable features for website creation, including features that allow developers to check how the code of other websites is written etc.